Where are the basque people located

Some specialists have insisted that the Basques are the oldest inhabitants of the European continent and their language, the oldest. And that they descend directly from the Cro-Magnons. It has also been said of them that they come from the Urals, that they are the last Iberians, or even descendants of the Atlanteans. And they have always been portrayed as independent and resistant to invaders.

BBC News Navigation

The prehistoric presence of the Basques in the territory they now occupy and their resistance to all the invaders is, however, impossible to sustain from a historical point of view. There is no evidence of the presence of Euskera in the region until the third century, when it is assumed that immigrants from Aquitaine or the Pyrenees bring the Basque language to what is now Euskadi. The indigenous people who lived in what is now the Basque Country offered resistance, although less than their Asturian and Cantabrian neighbors.

The origin of the Basques is the same as that of the rest of Europeans, against what was sustained by some authors of the 20th century. This has been confirmed by genetics, which is still trying to elucidate the extent to which Europeans descend from Cro-Magnons and Neolithic populations. In this new scenario, the biological peculiarities of the Basques — including the negative Rh — would not sink their roots in a different origin from their neighbors, but in environmental and pathogenic factors. Thus, an analysis of the DNA of individuals from 10 Spanish regions shows that the Basques do not differ genetically from the other peninsular populations.

The Romans remained in the Basque Country until the fall of the empire, although their presence was not massive. After the disappearance of the Romans, it was the Basques who dominated the territory, although in permanent conflict with peoples from Europe. The Kingdom of Navarre was created to face the expansion of Franks and Muslims. This kingdom extended from the Pyrenees to the south of the Basque Country and included the current continental Navarra Nafarroa Beherea.

Apart from the endless political and military battles, the Middle Ages was a time rich in events in the Basque Country. After the French Revolution , the provinces were abolished and replaced by departments 90 in total. Since then, the three provinces that historically made up the Northern Basque Country Lapurdi, Nafarroa Beherea and Zuberoa are part together with the Bearne of department number Throughout the 19th century the Carlist Wars took place in the Basque Country.

Nafarroa has its own government and parliament. As is often the case, politics has some influence on language. However, the case of the Basque Country has a different political connotation than that of Catalan in relation to Spanish.

Basque : NPLD – Network to Promote Linguistic Diversity

The origin of the language has an undeniable importance in giving roots to all peoples, and of course, Euskara name of the Basque language in Basque. The presence of a language that has no kinship with the neighbors increases the interest and led to a wide linguistic historiography. One of the accepted concepts is that Basque language has an origin previous to the arrival of the Romans to the Iberian Peninsula and at some point was surrounded by language with a greater degree of kinship, which did not survive the linguistic influence brought about by the Roman Empire.

But not only the origin of language gives us information.

DONKEY TREKKING IN THE BASQUE COUNTRY

It should be noted that, like the Basque language, social differentiation had a great influence. Thus, traditionally rural areas were dominated by Basque speakers while in urban centers their elites used the Castilian. The Basque language and the Catalan language are very different and have different origins. The Catalan Language is a typically Latin language with a structure and phonetics that can be located somewhere between Spanish and French. The Basque language does not belong to the Indo-European family of languages.

Its origin has not yet been fully understood, although there are several theories, some more accepted than others: origin in North Africa, origin in the Ural mountains, origin in the Caucasus or endogenous origin. The Basques and the Catalans, despite their cultural and linguistic differences, do not have remarkable genetic differences.

Basques have the highest concentration of type O in the world-more than 50 percent of the population-with an even higher percentage in remote areas where the language is best preserved, such as Soule. Most of the rest are type A. Type B is extremely rare among Basques.

The Basque Country – Is It Really A Country?

With the finding that Irish, Scots, Corsicans, and Cretans also have an unusually high incidence of type O, speculation ran wild that these peoples were somehow related to Basques. But then, in , came the discovery of the rhesus factor, more commonly known as Rh positive or Rh negative. Basques were found to have the highest incidence of Rh negative blood of any people in the world, significantly higher than the rest of Europe, even significantly higher than neighboring regions of France and Spain.

Cro-Magnon theorists point out that other places known to have been occupied by Cro-Magnon man, such as the Atlas Mountains of Morocco and the Canary Islands, also have been found to have a high incidence of Rh negative. No, the Basques are not Neanderthals.

Navigation menu

The physical, genetic, linguistic and blood-type differences between the Basque people and their neighbors are explained in another way: the Basques have remained almost always relatively isolated from the various peoples who have invaded the Iberian peninsula over the centuries. Thus, it is more difficult to find genetic traces of the Arabs in the Basque population, for example.

The farmhouses are loosely grouped into villages or are scattered over the lower slopes. The household including buildings, farm, and family was an entity of great permanence that was formerly defended by a traditional law of inheritance which ensured the descent of the property intact to a single heir or heiress. Besides being farmers of small acreages and shipbuilders, the Basques were traditionally seafarers. Basques played a leading part in the colonization of the New World, sailing with the conquistadors and being among the first to exploit the whaling grounds of the Bay of Biscay and the cod fisheries off Newfoundland.

The Basques have a strong allegiance to Roman Catholicism. They were not converted to Christianity until the 10th century, however, and, although they are now among the most observant of Spanish Catholics, animism survives in their folklore. In most of the larger industrial towns, not only Basque customs but also the Basque language tend to be lost. Basque is still spoken in remote inland mountain areas, but in the late 20th century, virtually all Basques spoke French or Spanish, whether or not they spoke Basque.

The early history of the Basques remains a subject for speculation, but Roman authors record the presence of the tribe of Vascones in lands corresponding roughly to the province of Navarra. They appear to have resisted the Visigoths, the Franks, the Normans, and, on occasion, the Moors, who occupied the valley of the Ebro. The territories of the Basques had been incorporated into the kingdom of Navarre by the 10th century, and by the end of the political turmoil of the Middle Ages, the provinces of Alava, Biscay, and Guipuzcoa had become united with Castile and Aragon.

watch However, in both Spain and France the Basques retained a large measure of local autonomy and privileges in matters of trade, taxation, and military service. They similarly supported the unsuccessful Carlist rebellion of the s, and as a punishment the government finally abolished the fueros, though the Basques managed to retain some degree of local autonomy.

Navarra , on the other hand, was eager to see the republic overthrown and furnished one of the strong points of the Nationalist rebellion in and some of its best Carlist troops. The city of Bilbao , which had always been a stronghold of liberalism against the Carlists, became at the same time the centre of republican government and also of Basque nationalism. The fighting lasted until September and outside Spain is chiefly remembered for the bombing, supposedly by German aircraft, of Guernica , the traditional assembly place of the provincia of Vizcaya and a symbol of the Basque nation in Nationalist eyes.

After the death of Franco and especially after the establishment of the liberal Spanish monarchy in , the Basques engaged in vigorous demonstrations for local autonomy, which the Spanish government granted in some measure in — The Basques thus continued on an unsettled course in their relations with the dominant Spaniards. You are using an outdated browser.

Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security. Article Media.